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Reply to the following two discussion posts, one page each. These are direct replies/responses to the discussion posts on the incident they wrote about. Original discussion post instructions are at the bottom for reference. There are 3 replies, the third has specific questions to answer.
Discuss your postings. What was similar and what was different regarding your perspective? What can be added, or what do you disagree with? Provide responses that enhance the author’s original posting and thought process. Be sure everyone has at least one response. Remember if you use sources, you must cite them in APA.
1. Vance Discussion
Mutual aid agreements and the Emergency Management Assistance Compact are invaluable pieces of the overall emergency management picture. Mutual aid agreements are agreements set in place well before disasters strike. It’s a deal between different people, organizations, or municipalities to support each other in the case that a disaster strikes. This allows for better continuity of operations for most organizations and an overall improved response. EMAC offers assistance during governor-declared states of emergency or disaster through a responsive, straightforward system that allows states to send personnel, equipment, and commodities to assist with response and recovery efforts in other states (What is Emac?, 2022). Both mutual aid agreements and EMAC come in extremely useful when addressing a mass casualty incident. When an MCI takes place, there is a very high probability that whatever local resources systems are being extremely taxed and stretched to the limit or completely broken. If a local municipality is overwhelmed, they can enact their mutual aid agreements and receive additional support. Much like the mutual aid agreement, the EMAC can also be activated, and resources can be deployed from other states.One very obvious drawback is time. When MCI are or have taken place, time is of the essence when it comes to all avenues of the response. If resources are coming from a state that is far away, then it will clearly take more time for them to arrive. Even if resources are coming from a bordering state, time can often runout too quickly. Legal issues are another drawback if this isn’t addressed before disasters happen. Some laws are applicable in one state, but not another or procedures may be different, and those types of specific details must be agreed upon and set in stone.DanWhat is EMAC? (2022). Emergency Management Assistance Compact. Retrieved January 13, 2022, from
2. Will Discussion
Mutual aid agreements establish the terms under which one party provides resources—personnel, teams, facilities, equipment, and supplies—to another party. Mutual aid in smaller, more rural agencies is an essential component of emergency response, due to the fact that there is just not sufficient resources to handle large scale disasters alone, or the demand for personnel exceeds what is available during “routine” day to day operations. The mutual aid could be for requesting services not inherent to the unit. For instance, at the Wing, we have a mutual aid agreement with the local police department’s K9 unit in order to do sweeps of the installation. As we are in the process of reinstating our fire department, we have mutual aid agreements with local fire departments in the instance of something on base that happens, that our full-time force cannot handle.Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC) was first introduced in 1993 after Florida Governor Lawton Chiles’s dissatisfaction with the response to Hurricane Andrew (Kapucu, 2009). EMAC is a mutual aid agreement and partnership that allows states to assist one another in responding to natural and man-made disasters (Kapucu, 2009). Within New York State, aside from New York City, it is mostly rural, spread out over vast terrain with weather changes (it was a snow storm of the century yesterday—summer day today), which makes it essential for EMAC and mutual aid agreements. On a typical day on the road, there is two units covering 14 towns, along with 2 ambulances. In a critical incident or disaster, we can shift resources, but that leaves the rest of the county short, so mutual aid in our area is essential. Interstate agreements appear to be the easier, and quicker, agreements to get the resources needed, while Interstate, the downfall is the timing of the request.Kapucu, N., Augustin, M.-E., & Garayev, V. (2009). Interstate Partnerships in Emergency Management: Emergency Management Assistance Compact in Response to Catastrophic Disasters. Public Administration Review, 69(2), 297–313.
Original Post Instructions:
Research intrastate and interstate disaster response legislation (Mutual aid & EMAC) related to your community.Provide a critical analysis focusing on:How does this legislation enhance the response capabilities related to an MCI?What are drawbacks to the system to include the time to enact?


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